The benefits of no-till fallow, which include reduced soil erosion, improved soil health, and increased stored soil water, are in jeopardy because of the widespread development of glyphosate resistance in Russian thistle. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of soil-active, residual herbicides for Russian thistle control in no-till fallow. The combinations of sulfentrazone + carfentrazone and flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, and metribuzin alone were each applied in late fall, late winter, and split-applied in late fall and late winter at three sites: Adams, OR, in 2017–2018; Lind, WA, in 2018–2019; and Ralston, WA, in 2019–2020. All treatments provided good to excellent control of the initial flush of Russian thistle when assessed in mid-May, except the late-fall application of metribuzin at all three sites, and the late-fall application of sulfentrazone + carfentrazone at Adams. Cumulative Russian thistle densities, evaluated monthly throughout the fallow season, were lowest for the sulfentrazone + carfentrazone treatments, except for the late-fall application at Adams. However, flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone and metribuzin provided greater control of tumble mustard and prickly lettuce than did sulfentrazone + carfentazone. Sulfentrazone + carfentrazone, flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, and metribuzin can all be used for Russian thistle control in fallow. To reduce the risk for crop injury to subsequently planted winter wheat, a late-fall application of sulfentrazone + carfentrazone may be the preferred treatment in low-rainfall regions where winter wheat–fallow is commonly practiced. A late-winter application may be preferred in higher rainfall regions where a 3-year rotation (e.g., winter wheat–spring wheat–fallow) is common. Flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone should be considered if other broadleaf weeds, such as tumble mustard or prickly lettuce, are of concern. The use of these soil-applied herbicides will reduce the need for the frequent application of glyphosate for Russian thistle control in no-till fallow.